Window Tinting in Santa Monica
Brooke Shields Reveals Skin Cancer Scare
Sunlight takes about 8.3 minutes to reach Earth from the surface of the Sun. A photon starting at the center of the Sun and changing direction every time it encounters a charged particle would take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to get to the surface.
The total amount of energy received at ground level from the Sun at the zenith depends on the distance to the Sun and thus on the time of year. It is about 3.3% higher than average in January and 3.3% lower in July. If the extraterrestrial solar radiation is 1367 watts per square meter (the value when the Earth–Sun distance is 1 astronomical unit), then the direct sunlight at Earth’s surface when the Sun is at the zenith is about 1050 W/m2, but the total amount (direct and indirect from the atmosphere) hitting the ground is around 1120 W/m2. In terms of energy, sunlight at Earth’s surface is around 52 to 55 percent infrared (above 700 nm), 42 to 43 percent visible (400 to 700 nm), and 3 to 5 percent ultraviolet (below 400 nm). At the top of the atmosphere, sunlight is about 30% more intense, having about 8% ultraviolet (UV), with most of the extra UV consisting of biologically damaging short-wave ultraviolet.
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Composition and power
The spectrum of the Sun’s solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5,800 K. The Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun produces Gamma rays as a result of the nuclear fusion process, these super-high-energy photons are converted by internal absorption and thermalization to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun’s surface and are emitted out into space. As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares. The Sun also emits X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and even radio waves; the only direct signature of the nuclear process is the emission of neutrinos.
Although the solar corona is a source of extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation, these rays make up only a very small amount of the power output of the Sun. The spectrum of nearly all solar electromagnetic radiation striking the Earth’s atmosphere spans a range of 100 nm to about 1 mm (1,000,000 nm). This band of significant radiation power can be divided into five regions in increasing order of wavelengths:
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- Ultraviolet C or (UVC) range, which spans a range of 100 to 280 nm. The term ultraviolet refers to the fact that the radiation is at higher frequency than violet light (and, hence, also invisible to the human eye). Due to absorption by the atmosphere very little reaches Earth’s surface. This spectrum of radiation has germicidal properties, and is used in germicidal lamps.
Ultraviolet B or (UVB) range spans 280 to 315 nm. It is also greatly absorbed by the atmosphere, and along with UVC is responsible for the photochemical reaction leading to the production of the ozone layer. It directly damages DNA and causes sunburn, but is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin and fur of mammals
Ultraviolet A or (UVA) spans 315 to 400 nm. This band was once held to be less damaging to DNA, and hence is used in cosmetic artificial sun tanning (tanning booths and tanning beds) and PUVA therapy for psoriasis. However, UVA is now known to cause significant damage to DNA via indirect routes (formation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species), and is able to cause cancer.
- Visible range or light spans 380 to 780 nm. As the name suggests, it is this range that is visible to the naked eye. It is also the strongest output range of the Sun’s total irradiance spectrum.
- Infrared range that spans 700 nm to 1,000,000 nm (1 mm). It is responsible for an important part of the electromagnetic radiation that reaches Earth. It is also divided into three types on the basis of wavelength:
- Infrared-A: 700 nm to 1,400 nm
- Infrared-B: 1,400 nm to 3,000 nm
- Infrared-C: 3,000 nm to 1 mm.
Brooke Christa Shields (born May 31, 1965) is an American actress, model and former child star. Initially a child model, she gained critical acclaim for her leading role in Louis Malle’s controversial film Pretty Baby (1978), in which she played a child prostitute in New Orleans at the turn of the 20th century. The role garnered Shields widespread notoriety, and she continued to model into her late teenage years and starred in several dramas in the 1980s, including The Blue Lagoon (1980), and Franco Zeffirelli’s Endless Love (1981).
In 1983, Shields abandoned her career as a model to attend Princeton University, where she graduated with a bachelor’s degree in French literature. In the 1990s, Shields returned to acting, appearing in minor roles in films, and starred in the titular role of the sitcom Suddenly Susan, which ran for four seasons between 1996 and 2000. Most recently, Shields has made appearances in other television shows, including that ’70s Show and Lipstick Jungle, also starring in the animation film Under Wraps, alongside Matthew Lillard and Drake Bell. She also worked alongside Bell again in the animated films Adventure Planet and A Monsterous Holiday.
Brooke Shields Reveals Skin Cancer Scare
The actress had the spot removed and is now doing “fine.” However, the scare served as a wake up call for Brooke who used to spend her days actively tanning.
“All my girlfriends and I would go up on the roof in New York: we didn’t have to be at the beach,” she recalled. “You think that because you’re not in the sun anymore, it’s all in the past. And then something like that crops up and you’re made aware of how dangerous it can really be.”
Brooke is now extra careful when it comes to looking out for her two daughters, Rowan, six, and three-year-old Grier in the sun.
Protect your home
To keep the sun’s heat out of the house, a low-emissivity coating should be applied to the outside pane of glazed windows. If the windows are designed to provide heat energy in the winter and keep heat inside the house (typical of cold climates), the low-emissivity coating should be applied to the inside pane of glazed windows. Such films also reduce the amount of visible and ultraviolet radiation entering a window, and are often applied to reduce fading of the contents of a room. Silvered film may also be employed to the same end. Spectrally selective films act by blocking certain wavelengths of the sun’s infrared radiation and reject heat without reducing natural light.
Home security films
Security films are applied to glass so when the glass is broken it holds together, preventing dangerous shards from flying about, or to make it more difficult for an intruder to gain entry. Typically applied to commercial glass, these films are made of heavy-gauge plastic and are intended to maintain the integrity of glass when subject to heavy impact. The most robust security films are capable of preventing fragmentation and the production of hazardous glass shards from forces such as bomb blasts. Some companies have even experimented with bullet ballistics and multiple layers of security film. Another key application for security window films (safety window films) is on large areas of “flat glass” such as storefront windows, sliding glass doors, and larger windows that are prone to hurricane damage. These security films, if applied properly, can also provide protection for vehicles. These security films are often tinted and can be up to 400 micrometers (µm) thick, compared to less than 50 µm for ordinary tint films. If anchored correctly, they can also provide protection for architectural glazing in the event of an explosion. A layer of film (of 100 µm thickness or greater) can prevent the ejection of spall when a projectile impacts on its surface, which otherwise creates small dagger-like shards of glass that can cause injury.
Window tints can be used in applications like shopfronts windows, office block windows, and house windows. This is often done to increase privacy, and decrease heating and cooling costs. Window tints are used in some energy efficient buildings.
Window films are also used to apply See-through graphics to glass and other transparent surfaces, to provide advertising, branding, signage and decoration. See-through graphics are most commonly applied using a perforated window film with a graphic visible from one side but not the other side, which remains see-though. Vehicle wraps on buses are perhaps the widest application of See-through graphics.
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